Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Part II. The basics of Omni channel approach What is Omni-channel retailing? Dealing with wide range of channels through which business can interact with customer retailers have applied many concepts to achieve success and profitability. They optimized operations for each channel, which allowed to gain certain advantage in short-term. However, having independently managed channels within scope of operations of one organisation has proven to be rather ineffective approach Ã¢â¬â nowadays channels are not strictly separate routes of customer communication, but can cross and merge along the customer journey. This is why retailers donÃ¢â¬â¢t have other choice as to move to omni-channel concept, which Ã¢â¬Å"is about 1:1 experiences across the gamete of devices that consumers useÃ¢â¬ (Newman, 2014). LCP consulting indicates, that omni-channel retailing aims to deliver a seamless brand experience for the consumer through all available shopping channels, whether on mobile internet devices, computers, in-store, on television, via catalogues, which is then fulfilled through a fully integrated fulfilment and returns operation. Ã¢â¬Å"This is not just about the sales front end, itÃ¢â¬â¢s about transforming the whole businessÃ¢â¬ (LCP Consulting, 2015). Concentrating on single channel or separating channels is not enough both for customer satisfaction as well as for business profitability. That is why traditional retailers are investigating possibilities of setting up an online store and why e-tailers recognize theShow MoreRelatedMarketing And Supply Chain Operations1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgoing to stores because of their limited awareness of nearby stores or the risk of the required items not being available. (Google, 2014) Those figures prove the importance of providing the necessary information to consumers through all available channels. Modern consumers are looking for personalized recommendations and generally are becoming more demanding. They also want more control over the delivery. Consequently, marketing and supply chain operations need to focus on more customer specificRead MoreTheories of Motivation Concepts Table1503 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdocument will focus primarily on the achievement motivation theory established by Harackiewicz, Barron, Carter, Lehto, Elliot in 1997 and how it can and cannot be used effectively within workplace situations. To begin, Elliot defines motivation as a basic innate drive for success. This drive encompasses the individuals desires, or ambitions for success (Rabideau, 2005). Achievement motivation therefore, is based primarily on reaching ones stated aspirations, which in turn motivates the individualsRead MoreWhat is Motivation?2072 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageson the achievement motivation theory established by Harackiewicz, Barron, Carter, Lehto, Elliot in 1997 and how it can and cannot be used effectively within workplace situations. Motivation Achievement To begin, Elliot defines motivation as a basic innate drive for success. This drive encompasses the individuals desires, or ambitions for success (Rabideau, 2005). Achievement motivation therefore, is based primarily on reaching ones stated aspirations, which in turn motivates the individualsRead MoreTesco s E Business Model1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproblematic issues associated with online or e-retailing is managing omni-channel experience (a retail type integrating various shopping methods available to consumers, such as online, physical store, or by phone) (Fulgoni, 2014). As a new concept omni-channel retailing means the development of flawless approach to the consumer experience by means of all available channels or methods of shopping (Fulgoni, 2014). These channels need to be treated very efficiently by caring about constant updatingRead MoreMacys Inc: Performance Management Strategy and Recommendations3045 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesconsumers. In regards to the 5 tools of organizational design, Macys has done a fantastic job in innovating and upgrading each aspect. As detailed in the pages that follow, Macys continues to improve upon its 150 year history by providing a proper channel of continued growth and innovation. Empower managers and workers Empowering both managers and workers is predicated on proper motivation. Without motivation, these individuals will not be empowered to prefer their respective jobs at a high levelRead MoreSej Overview. Sej President Kazuki Furuya Has Worked Vigorously1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrealize his Ã¢â¬Å"close-by and convenientÃ¢â¬ concept. According to Seven and i Holding corporation annual review of operations for 2016, he plans to actualize this concept by manipulating location, products, and services. Particularly, the introduction of Omni-Channel Strategy and Seven Premium have been absolutely instrumental to SEJ and Seven and i holding Co., Ltd. success. Seven Premium products are of higher quality than traditional convenience store products, but comes at a slightly higher price. SEJRead MoreVisit Charlotte, North Carolina s Queen City754 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbathrobes, or relax with the premium cable channels and Wi-Fi connections. Take a swim in the indoor pool or spa tub, and fuel up with a meal at the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant. Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re planning a day of sightseeing or a night out on the town, you can take advantage of Le Meridien CharlotteÃ¢â¬â¢s complimentary shuttle, which operates within a one-mile radius. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for serious luxury, book your stay in one of the most eye-catching hotels in the city. The Omni Charlotte Hotel boasts nearly 400 roomsRead More Communication Technology and Canadian Identity Essay1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestechnological innovation that results in new fragmenting and regionalizing entity. I will examine some of the many forms of cultural fragmentation that take place due to the structure of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s mass media industry. First I will discuss in general basic information about the Internet being a very strong communication tool and then discuss communication technology in the Canadian context. As well, identify the cultural bonding aspects of communication in Canada such as the overcoming of geography,Read MoreOperations Management in Retail Business3157 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagespursue an Omni-channel service offering. Omni-channel is a means of providing service through multiple channels of communication with both the potential custom er and the vender. In essence, Omni-channel is a service that allows customers to demand and purchase products through various means including phone, internet, in store support, and more. This Omni channel strategy, if implemented correctly, could serve as a VMI style system of inventory management mentioned above. This multiple channel relationshipRead MoreThe Benefits Of Business Information826 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbenefits of the business trends, diminishing operational costs, Whats more Understanding a greater amount benefits. 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Monday, December 16, 2019
The United States political groups and those specialized public and private sectors outside the government have evidently manifested strong interest in deploying a ballistic missile defense to protect the United States from attack. The ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) Treaty prevents nationwide defense but actually allows the United States to launch up to 100 interceptors for long-range ballistic missiles at a single site (Causewell, 2002 p.75). We will write a custom essay sample on Case for a National Missile Defense or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the other hand, critics and socially concerned groups have provided many thoughtful arguments for saying that NMD should not even continue or progress in its development (Lindsay, 2002 p.144). The current trend of argument nowadays brought by the public pressuring sectors and those concerned in the countries militaristic defense is the abolishment of the treaty. Many supporters of National Missile Defense (NMD) state that the United States should initiate an amendment or abrogation of ABM treaty so that it can further execute the development of NMD for the maximizing the countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ defense potential (Causewell, 2002 p.75). To consider, there are actually many political personnel in the Congress that do not agree with the Clinton AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s approach arguing that the threat justified the more rapid deployment of an NMD system. Significantly, there have been a wide debate and argument accompanied by this procedure. Most objection are concerned mainly on the defense status of the country upon the initiation of the project, while positive side argues that this kind of technology might provide the United States the potential to obtain the edge of their defense system. In the study, the primary discussion involves the issue on NMD and its actual presence in the United States. The main inquiry of the discussion resides to the fact of proving the most appropriate argument for the paper to support. This accompanies evidences and historical accounts that are shown during the whole course of the discussion. Discussion Historical Background The United States has pursued the development and deployment of defenses against long-range ballistic missiles since the early 1950s. It launched a treaty-compliant area located in North Dakota during the mid-1970s; however, its operation was closed only after a few months. President Reagan initiated a development plan in order to further enhance the program into a more intensive defense during the time of early 1980s, but these programs were reverted back on several occasions during the Reagan and Bush Administrations (Causewell, 2002 p.75). Most evidently, from the historical perspective, the Clinton Administration initially centered its attention in developing the technological aspect of the NMD project; however, in 1996, the administration itselfÃ provided an outline indicating a strategy to initiate the further development and deployment of an NMD system by 2003 if the threat warranted and the technology was ready (Causewell, 2002 p.76). During January 1999, the Clinton Administration announced that it had adjusted this program to permit deployment in 2005, and would decide in summer 2000 whether to proceed with deployment of up to 20 at a single site (Causewell, 2002 p.76). Fortunately, this statement of the administrator was modified in February 2000 to include and permit the 100 interceptors. Most knowingly, the Bush Administration prefers to possess an intensive and robust NMD program that is likely to include land, sea and space-based assets. As the statement of the President exemplified, he remarked intensively to the AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to missile defenses in a speech on May 1, 2001 (Causewell, 2002 p.75). This scenario even proves that the initiation of NDM is within the plans of the Bush administrator; hence, its existence as one of the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s military and defense program is present. The U.S SenateÃ¢â¬â¢s votes last October 1999 against the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the renewed drive in recent years toward the deployment of a U.S. The issues on NMD system have initiated the analysts in the United States and international aspect to express their concern about the apparent U.S. trend toward a unilateral approach to security (Patrick Forman, 2002 p.242). The Clinton Administration provided different aspects about the deployment of an NMD system. These components provided by the administration served as the primary guide in the technical management of the program. As per the administrations instructions, these components included an assessment of the threat to the United States form long-range ballistic missiles, an assessment of the maturity of the technology and the feasibility of deploying an effective system, consideration of the implications for the ABM Treaty and the possibility of gaining Russian agreement on amendments, the potential costs of the prospective system, and the environmental implications of deployment (Causewell, 2002 p.75). Many political groups questioned the AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to NMD funding and deployment. News and arguments point out that the government provided these additional funds in order to speed up the construction and development of the NMD program; however, this resulted to more inquiries and curiosity among the concerned public. In additional to this government effort, the Administration even passed legislation from both the House and the Senate passed on NMD deployment to further increase its phasing. Considering the Congress and White House have evidently merged and controlled the by the Republican Party, the advocates and supporters of NMD should expect a congressional approval for Bush administration plan (Causewell, 2002 p.75). Theories on Problems at Stake Political parties present in the Congress and other concerned sectors have a strong preference for the launching of ballistic missile defense (BMD) system to add up to the defensive power of the United States. In can be recalled during the time Soviet Union collapse that occurred predominantly in 1991, Iraq utilized their Scud missiles in the event of Persian Gulf War, and the use of ballistic missile technologies, all piled up as primary risk of the United States. Significantly, there are two historical scenarios in the summer of 1998 that provided these significant concerns (Causewell, 2002 p.76). First, during the accounts that occurred in July, from the congressionally-operated committee headed by former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld concluded that United StateÃ¢â¬â¢s search to further enhance their long-range ballistic missiles might be able to attain such target in the span of 5 years of deciding; however, it is essential that the United States should have, at the very least, warning before conducting the tests and deployment of such missiles. Second, during the ending periods of the month of August, North Korea flight tested 3-stage ballistic missiles. Even though the third stage of this missile did not make it through during its first flight, and this missile would not have possessed such range to attain the continental United States, North Korea manifested that it had built the technology for Ã¢â¬Å"stagedÃ¢â¬ missiles, which has been an important discovery and influence in the field of longer-range ballistic missiles development (Causewell, 2002 p.76). According to political groups, the threatening aspect of this NMD program to the United States is from the fact that only a handful of countries, most of which are probably not now close to having operational intercontinental missiles. These groups have argued that the United States are not yet prepared for building a fully operating NMD system, and the risks involved are too extensive to initiate such goal. One of the problems that might arise is that enemies can attack the United States in ways that do not require long- range missile. The situation of NMD can make the nation vulnerable to other nationÃ¢â¬â¢s possible attack. Moreover, NMD could jeopardize arms control and related efforts such as the Nunn-Lugar cooperative threat reduction program intended to secure nuclear warheads and materials within Russia (Lindsay, 2002 p.144). Considering that Bush Administration still has no initiated a detail blueprint or outline for this program in terms of its prospective missile defense architecture, or any detailed and documented motives to initiate the withdrawal from the ABM Treaty. However, in meetings with NATO defense ministers in Brussels on June 7, 2001, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld stated that the Bush Administration would purse in the facilitation and enhancement of missile defenses and that scrapping of the ABM Treaty was Ã¢â¬Å"inevitableÃ¢â¬ since it greatly prevented both testing and launching of missile defenses (Causewell, 2002 p.76). In the United States, opponents of the CTBT and proponents of NMD assert that their views are driven not by isolationism or unilateralism, but rather by their belief that postÃ¢â¬âCold War threats demand new approaches to U.S security. However, the perceived resurgence in U.S. unilateralism nevertheless has grave consequences for both U.S. and international security. A particularly troubling aspect of recent U.S behavior has been the overt dismissal of the views of allies on the issues of CTBT ratification and NMD (Patrick Forman, 2002 p.242). Recommendation and Policy Options In providing these recommendations, there are certain things that need to be considered in order to come up with the rightful justifications of the decisions made. First, ballistic missile technology, such as long-range missile technology and NMD, is currently being developed in other countries as the use of it in defensive power is being considered progressively. There is a factual possibility Ã that Iran, Iraq, or North Korea will obtain the capacity to attack the United States using this technology. Hence, this is the initial point to consider in defending against this type of advanced technology for the reason that, the United States might be overrun by these features if they will not incorporate such technology within their defense system (Lindsay, 2002 p.144). Second, the technology for shooting down the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s incoming missiles is not as feasible and accurately done in real time settingÃ¢â¬âparticularly when matched against the small long-range missile arsenals that countries such as Iraq, Iran, or North Korea could plausibly facilitate in the years ahead (Lindsay, 2002 p.144). The use of enhanced sensors, computerized systems, and missile technology should soon provide the possibility of carrying out a high-reliability intercepts. The advantage of this is the promulgation of enhanced interceptors and substitutes it for the use of Nuclear Bomb. Third reason to consider is the ending the cold war that initiated an opportunity to recap the contribution of U.S missile technology to its national security policy and in U.S.-Russian relations. Fourth, the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), which is considered as one of the major threats in the United States can be nullified by the developing the NMD. As for the missile technological experts, they claim that the development of this NMD and enhancement of its features and missile technology can potentate in the development of such super-defensive nation. Lastly, nuclear deterrence, while reliable in most circumstances, cannot always guarantee its success as it is also not as feasible type of defense. Such Deterrence should not be assumed to apply under such circumstances, since the threats present against the country would already be confronting extreme annihilation even if it did not use NMD against the United States. For these five reasons, the advantage for pursuing the development and initiation of the NMD program dominate; hence, from its summed up rationale, the strength the United States can obtain with the use of such technology centers in the fact that they can actually provide massive defense advantage over the possible attack of other countries that may have the potential of using the same kind of technology. Conclusion In the discussion of the study, the prime conditions that have been obtained is the wide support of NMD progression among the political and military groups for the reason of U.S advancement in the field of national defense. From the discussion above, five recommendations are previewed in order to depict the advantages of incorporating such system in the national defense, which as a whole, pertains to the advancement of countryÃ¢â¬â¢s defense against outside threats. This project has been preferred by Bush administration, although arguments have been present to the ABM treaty and other support groups negation of projectÃ¢â¬â¢s launching and development. References Causewell, E. V. (2002). National Missile Defense: Issues and Developments. Nova Publishers. Lindsay, J. M. (2002). Defending America: The Case for Limited National Missile Defense. Brookings Institution Press. Patrick, S., Forman, S. (2002). Multilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: Ambivalent Engagement. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Ã How to cite Case for a National Missile Defense, Essay examples
Sunday, December 8, 2019
A- STAGES (UPPSALA) INTERNATIONALIZATION MODEL Essay The Model Characteristics: 1- the export development process has a sequential nature -successive stages represent higher degrees of international involvement/commitment;2- the process is a gradual acquisition, integration and use of knowledge about foreign markets and operations; 3- the process is also one of organizational learning; 4- the model is experience/knowledge-based the more experience the firm gains in time, the more it is prepared to commit itself to this market and to launch new activities; 5- from this higher commitment the firm will gain experience/market knowledge; 6- internationalization is a slow process, beginning with local representatives in culturally close markets; 7- firms would enter new markets with successfully greater psychic distance; 8- the concept of psychic distance -factors preventing or disturbing the flow of information between firm and market, including factors such as differences in languages- cultures- political systems- educational levels- lev els of industrial development- tastes among consumers- values, behaviors, attitudes.9- the main structure of the stages model: a) state/static aspects of internationalization variables the market commitment and knowledge about foreign markets; b) change aspects of internationalization variables decisions to commit resources and current business performance. 10- the concept of market commitment is composed of two factors: a) the amount of resources committed- the size of investment in marketing, organization, personal, etc. ; b) the degree of commitment ? difficulty in finding an alternative resources and transferring them to alternative uses. 11- international activities require both a) general knowledge -can be transferred from one country to another; b) market specific knowledge -gained mainly through experience in the market. 12- there is a direct relationship between market knowledge and market commitment the better the knowledge about the market, the more valuable the resources and the stronger the commitment to the market (especially true for experiential knowledge). 13- additional market commitment as a rule will be made in small incremental steps. 14- However the exceptions are; firms with large resources experience small consequences of their commitments, and can take larger internationalization steps; when market conditions are stable and homogenous, relevant market knowledge ca
Saturday, November 30, 2019
From the beginning, the Confederates and the Union forces had an almost equal strength when it came to manpower, but as the war continued the Union forces grew in number as it was able to isolate some of the Southern states (West, 2006, para. 19). Confederate planners and ordinary folks believed that guerrillas would be a significant component of their armed base; however, common soldiers had to be the main actors because the war could not be won by mere guerrillas.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The American Civil War: Rules, Chronology and Turning Points specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Confederates considered the war a Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s war.Ã¢â¬ There were disadvantages to this type of war. Guerrilla war produces vigilantism and Ã¢â¬Å"outright outlawryÃ¢â¬ which make civilians victims rather than the protected ones. The Confederate leadership felt suspicious of the members of the guerrill a forces and so the guerrilla war failed because the Forces underestimated its capability. The guerrilla war came out to be a war with Ã¢â¬Å"its own rules, its own chronology, its own turning points, and its own heroes, villains, and victims. At the same time, it also formed part of the wider war. It influenced the strategy and logistics of conventional campaigns, the political culture, the morale of soldiers and civilians, the southern economy, and ultimately, the very nature of the conflict.Ã¢â¬ (Sutherland, 2002, p. 262) The guerrilla warfare held promise as demonstrated by its many successes. On 23 March 1862, Colonel James Carter of the Second East Tennessee Infantry, United States Army, led a group of Tennessee volunteers, along with the Forty-Ninth Indiana Volunteers, to proceed to Big Creek Gap passing through Boston. When they reached the foot of the mountain, Colonel Carter received information that they were to encounter a rebel cavalry at Big Creek Gap. Colonel Carte r divided his volunteers into two with one group under the charge of Lieutenant Colonel Kcigwin and the other one under his command. After an ascent of about 9 miles to the mountain, they surprised the enemy led by Lieutenant Colonel John White. After a short period of fighting, the rebels were defeated and many of them ran to different direction. Many were killed and wounded while fifteen rebels were taken prisoners. The attackers were a group of guerrillas from the Union Forces. (United States War Department et al., 1884) There were many disadvantages and instances of failure in the conduct of guerrilla war. Instances of how people wanted to form and employ guerrilla tactics or schemes could be seen from these phrases taken from the database on Ã¢â¬Å"War on the Rebellion.Ã¢â¬ Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A Louisianian announced that it was very advantageous for Ã¢â¬Å" a regiment of mounted men, on the guerrilla order,Ã¢â¬ on the southern parts of his state, and so he asked that he be allowed by the Confederate government to do so. Another man, an Alabamian, asked permission to raise a group to conduct guerrilla tactics without Ã¢â¬Å"restraint and under no orders.Ã¢â¬ A guerrilla leader said his group of 300 guerrillas conducted a raid and inflicted heavy damage to a Union unit in the summer of 1862 in Alabama. (United States War Department et al., 1884) The concept of war of attrition, which was designed by Confederate President Jefferson Davis, involved guerrilla war strategies. The concept was based on the strategy of George Washington during the American Revolution against the British forces. By applying guerrilla tactics, the Confederates could gain time before they could seek help from foreign allies. Davis appointed diplomats who used their skill in attaining foreign sympathies, especially the British. This plan failed when the diplo mats were captured by a Union officer while they were on their mission to gain British support. The war of attrition was opposed by General Robert Lee who wanted a strong strike against the Union Forces. (West, 2006, paras. 6-7) The Ã¢â¬Å"AnacondaÃ¢â¬ plan, designed to blockade the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to weaken the economic and political bases of the Confederacy, was destined to fail from its early inception. It was a master plan of General Winfield Scott, chief of all generals of the Union forces, but which was not supported by President Lincoln. Scott argued that the Confederates had no navy to support its army and therefore it would be easy to attack the Confederates in the Mississippi coasts cutting the Confederates export of cotton, possible import of weapons and help from foreign allies. The Union forces would then invade the open areas of the Mississippi River. Scott theorized that this strategy would need 300,000 men and about two years to accomplish. The Anaconda p lan was a long-range and large scale operation of the Union forces as against the ConfederatesÃ¢â¬â¢ war of attrition involving guerrilla tactics. (Encyclopedia Virginia: Anaconda plan,n.d.)Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The American Civil War: Rules, Chronology and Turning Points specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Guerrilla warfare was never used on a large scale because Confederate political and military leaders tied to traditional, hierarchical forms of social and military organization did not trust the men who came from grassroots and fear the results of such unregulated mode of fighting. The guerrilla tactics were first used for local defense but Confederate leaders underestimated it and failed to tap its advantage. The Confederate generals wanted to use guerrilla warfare when they realized they were outnumbered; their armies accounted for just about 55 percent of the opposing forces. The UnionÃ¢ â¬â¢s population was more than double the Confederacy. General Robert Lee was at first opposed to the guerrilla strategy but applied it in later campaigns, especially when he saw that his troops were outnumbered. (Sutherland, 2002) The guerrilla war befits its true name, a peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s war. There were irregulars here and there asking for authorization from higher-ups of the Confederacy so they could form smaller guerrilla forces and operate with guerrilla tactics. The ways of the guerrillas however were questionable since they prepared the guerrilla ways, even in the far reaches of the country. They used this in the west and the North-South border. As the war went on, they became desperate as they attacked Union mail trains. In August 1861, Unionists asked United States Simon Cameron as rebels controlled the state government. (Sutherland, 2002) The Union forces attacked both the Confederate soldiers and their civilian supporters to finally crash the enemy. They forced the sword on all sides of the enemy, particularly the people who supported the Confederate armies. The Confederacy was now reduced in number; their smaller gains were done through guerrilla tactics. General Robert Lee felt that time was on the side of the enemy and that the Union armies had the initiative. Lee opposed his presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of attrition. He did not want a defensive strategy since the way of taking advantage of the ConfederateÃ¢â¬â¢s limited resources was to have a general action so that the Union forces would abandon the war. (Sutherland, 2000) The ConfederateÃ¢â¬â¢s strong force during the final years of the war was General LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Army which was concentrated in Northern Virginia. With a frontal attack, the Union army could not defeat LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s formidable army, and so the coastal wars began with the strategy of attacking Confederate supplies. To weaken Lee by attacking the logistics was one of the objectives of the coastal wars. This stage of the war was very crucial. (Murray, 2011, p. 114)Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Navy BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s plan was for the forces to implement through a step by step process. The Federal Army wanted to create the lines over which they could operate effectively because they were only holding the southern bases. This was a long stretch of coastal areas difficult to control. Thus, the Atlantic Campaign had to be an effective operation, a theatre that had to be played in sequence, i.e. to capture every area to lead to the final objective, strangling the Confederate Army by way of capturing the areas they controlled and their logistics. (Dougherty, 2010) The Atlantic Campaign started on August of 1861 when the Union forces landed men and big guns on the Confederate-controlled port of Hatteras. The Union bombardment created heavy damage and they had a successful landing. This stage involved taking control of the area so that the forces could provide rapid and uninterrupted attacks. A specific area was the Port Royal but there were also identified ports in the Gulf that had to be controlled. These were strategic points to give the forces areas to operate and proceed to their final objective, the taking over of Fort Clark. On the other hand, the coastal wars were also General LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s final line of defense. What happened was a battle like no other battle Ã¢â¬â the Federals against the Confederates firing their guns along the Atlantic. The Hatteras Inlet was a key passage to North Carolina which had become a haven of pirates and brigands disguised as guerrillas. The Secretary of the Navy of the United States at that time wrote that the blockade would benefit the people of North Carolina. Fort Hatteras and Fort Clark were heavily defended by the Confederates such that the battle was the most heavily fought during the Civil War. This was one proof that the guerrilla war did not work. (Dougherty, 2010) References Dougherty, K. (2010). Strangling the confederacy: Coastal operations in the American civil war. Pennsylvania: Casemate Publishers. Enc yclopedia Virginia: Anaconda plan.(n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Anaconda_Plan Murray, W. (2011). War, strategy, and military effectiveness. New York: Cambridge University Press. Sutherland, D. (2002). Guerrilla warfare, democracy, and the fate of the confederacy. Southern Historical Association, 68(2), 259-292. doi: 126.96.36.199 United States War Department, Moody, J., Cowles, C., Ainsworth, F., Scott, R., Lazelle, H.,Ã¢â¬ ¦Kirkley, J. (1884). War of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies, series 1, volume 10 (part I). Retrieved from http://collections.library.cornell.edu/moa_new/browse.html?notisid=anu4519 West, M. (2006). Did the Confederates have a master plan? Retrieved fromÃ http://rutherfordtnhistory.org/did-the-confederates-have-a-master-plan/ This research paper on The American Civil War: Rules, Chronology and Turning Points was written and submitted by user Lainey S. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Negotiation Analysis Introduction The term negotiation refers to a dialogue between two or more parties or people. It is aimed to reach an understanding, gain advantage in the result of dialogue, produce an agreement upon courses of action, resolve a certain issue and bargain for an individual or group. Negotiations always aim at compromise. Negotiation usually happens in businesses, non-profit organizations, legal proceedings, among nations and even in personal situations like marriage, divorce and parenting (Sparks, 2003).Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Negotiation Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Because of the growing trends in business and globalization, negotiation is usually used in the market places. Teams can effectively come to a conclusion to break down a negotiation. Partners must practice listening, writing and roles as team members (Sparks, 2003).Most of business and organizations are forced to merge and sell their businesses when they want to change their services or when they are faced with problems in the organization. This paper will discuss the negotiation of ATT and T-Mobile and the United States government who want to block the merger between the two mobile carriers. ATT and Mobile U.S. Mobile Carriers Case The merger of ATT and T-mobile started on March 20, 2011 and on 31st August the same year the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice in USA resolved to block the merger and it filed a lawsuit in federal court. AT T came up with the idea to buy T-Mobile for $39 billion from Deutsche Telekom (Weaver, 2011). ATT is the largest mobile company in the United Sates that has 33.7 million subscribers and if the deal were to succeed, ATT would have a 43% market share of mobile phones. On March 20, 2011, Deutsche Telecom accepted the stock and cash purchase that was offered by ATT for T-Mobile USA (Kent, 2010). After introduction of iPhone in 2007, T-mobile USA lost most of the rewarding customers and it dropped to 78.3% of subscribers in 2010 compared to 85% in 2006. T-Mobile had to come up with comparison with other mobile supporters like Verizon Wireless and ATT Mobility and it found that network upgrades and spectrum purchase were risky with the drop of customers and this led Deutsche Telecom to come up with the idea to sell. The merge must pass through a regulatory review whereby the two parties expected it to take 12 months and the deal requires an approval by the Department of Justice and Federal Communication Commission in US. Hearing on the acquisition of T-Mobile USA by ATT was held in May by the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Antitrust, Competition Policy and Consumer Rights. During this hearing, senators raised questions to the companies CEOs about the effects of the merger and competition issues. The two companies denied the right that they were competitors (Kent, 2010).Advertising Looking for term paper on business communication? Le t's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The suit that was filed by the DOJ in the District of Colombia was to have the court stop the merger of ATT with T-Mobile. It claimed that the combination of the two companies would lead to a situation where customers of mobile wireless telecommunications services would face higher prices, there would be less product variety and innovation and the services offered would be poor due to reduction in incentives to invest than would be without the merger. The suit argued that the market of T-Mobile strategy had been to be the challenger brand hence it would bring new innovations and new prices to the market place (Leo 2001). According to Andrade (2001), the proposed merger of ATT with T-Mobile will improve the future for wireless consumers that will help the young people to have internet connections. The combination would also shape the future for wireless consumers. With the wide creation of device s and an increase in adoption rates of wireless service, the merger would lead to many arguments. The representatives of the companies argue that it will be an advantage to merge the two mobile supporters. This is because they are convinced that combining ATT and T-MobileÃ¢â¬â¢s mutually compatible networks will deliver numerous benefits to consumers especially for the Latino communities (Andrade, 2001). This is because the resources, skills and experiences of the workers will be merged to have one common mobile carrier that ensures quality services and prompt responses to customer care. Merging the two networks will help the combined company to deliver the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best-advanced wireless services to all communities in America. This will enable people to have access to a wide variety of distance learning, telemedicine and applications of e-commerce (Andrade, 2001).It will create new opportunities of mobile broadband for Latinos who were underserved with the service. The merg ing will benefit the citizens so matter where they live. Because large numbers of Latinos live a mobile life style, including many migrant workers, they must accept a transaction that would increase the ability of Latinos to keep in touch with their employers, schools, and family. The merger will add value and increase personal and professional opportunities for Americans. They will be able to have so many chances to enjoy their lives and take part in e-learning hence improving the living status of the citizens (Andrade, 2001). It is argued that the merger would create many high quality jobs and provide access to new economic opportunities to the citizens. ATT had announced to come up with 5,000 job opportunities to the jobless in the society and no job losses to the people who will be working in the wireless call centre when the merge will be approved. There were some people and organizations who criticized the merge with the argument that the merger will reduce employment (Andrade , 2001).Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Negotiation Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The promise of the merging the two companies and the expansion of wireless networks that support LatinosÃ¢â¬â¢ increasingly mobile lifestyle, the expansion of job opportunity, and ATTÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in managing the job impacts of past mergers, has proven that the merger deserves support from Americans and the community as a whole (Andrade, 2001). Public comments seem to be against the merger, but ATT has been skillful to come up with support from all corners of the technology world. Microsoft, Qualcomm and Facebook joined with the technology giants to offer support t ATT and T-Mobile merger (Kent, 2011).The combination of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s second- and fourth-largest wireless carriers would lead to violation of the antitrust law and lessen competition in the market place (Tom, Sara and Jeff, 2011). A rejecti on of the merge by regulators would leave ATT liable to pay Deutsche Telekom $3 billion in cash, to give T-Mobile USA wireless spectrum, and to reduce charges for calls into ATTÃ¢â¬â¢s network, a package valued at as much as $7 billion, Deutsche Telekom place (Tom et al, 2011). The acquisition would lead to ATT displacing Verizon Wireless that belongs to Verizon Communities Inc and Vodafone Group PLC as the number one U.S wireless carrier. ATT and Verizon would control most of the profits in the market place (Tom et al, 2011). The ATT T-Mobile merger would be a major achievement for ATT and it would make the mobile carrier the largest provider in the United States. According to Leo (2001), ATT has effectively neutralized T-Mobile as a competitor, especially since T-Mobiles current owner, Deutsche Telekom AG, has indicated that it did not plan to make any more investments in T-Mobile. ATT enjoys many of the benefits of the merger like reduced number of competitors with paying bill ion for the acquisition. If the merger between ATT and T-Mobile is successful, Verizon will not have a rest.The deal would allow Verizon to maintain its spectrum advantage and negotiation leverage it currently enjoys. However, if the ATT T-Mobile deal goes through, regulators likely will not approve consolidation. If the ATT/T-Mobile merger is approved by the Department of Justice and the FCC, they will review their combined network assets. (The Department of Justice sued to prevent the merger in August, so the merger may not go through or ATT and T-Mobile may have to negotiate a settlement that involves the sale of some network assets to other wireless providers like Sprint or MetroPCS (David and James,2006).Advertising Looking for term paper on business communication? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More ATT and T-Mobile moved to dismiss the complaints, arguing that Sprint and Cellular South failed to adequately show the merger would cause them antitrust injury. Judge Ellen Segal Huvelle said the majority of the claims would actually be dismissed, but let a few of Sprint and Cellular Souths complaints stand. According to Leo (2011), ATT will not just walk away from the merger because if the merger does not occur ATT has to pay a breakup fee of $ 3 billion in cash and make other allowances to Deutsche Telekom worth other $3 billion hence it will pay a break up cost of $6 billion. Such a breakup would strengthen one of its main competitors in communication. ATT will not surrender unless they see that the case is hopeless. ATT will have to pose a challenge to the governments case. The major idea of the case is the concentration of the carrier in the market (Tom et al, 2011). Without T-Mobile, the market would have no effective check on price increases or technological stagnation by ATT and Verizon. Frankens section on consumer prices concludes that Sprint places very little pressure on the prices of ATT and Verizon, because it charges only marginally less than they do. The elimination of the lowest cost national wireless option likely explains why so many T-Mobile customers are opposed to this deal (Leo, 2011). According to Tom et al, (2011) ATT submitted new economic models to the FCC and it stated that the merger would lead a reduction of price and increase the services in the metropolitan markets. These models gave more detailed support for the arguments that the merger will reduce strains on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s wireless network, lower costs and increase quality of services provided since the resources and personnel will be merged. It will also increase the number of expatriates in the communication sector. The merge of ATT and T-Mobile would lead to tens of millions of consumers all across the United States facing higher prices, there will be few choices and lower quality products for mobile wireless services. Consumers across the country even those who live in the rural areas and those who have lower incomes will benefit from the competition amount the wireless carriers. The FCC cannot reject or accept the merger proposal but it has to be involved in the negotiation process because it helps in the regulation of wireless spectrum and since ATT and T-Mobile have their license from FCC, it must approve the transfer of those licenses (Tim, 2002). Communication has to be used as a link to have effective negotiations. Communication workers of America (CWA) reported that the merger would create new job opportunities and they had to support the deal.The ATT/T-Mobile merger will save, and create more U.S. jobs than when T-Mobile is alone in the market. On the other hand, some of the people including Sprit Nextel argue that if the two companies merge there will be reduced competition in the cell phone industry, it will raise cost of the service s provided, there will be few choices of handsets, the quality of the services will be poor and less innovative(Tom et al, 2011). The Justice Department will look for any violation of antitrust law. FCC has to evaluate whether the issue is in the public interest it will also take into account whether the deal will encourage competition and use of new services and whether it increase the prices or harm consumers through anti-competitive behavior in the markets. If FCC sees that the merger is the best for the interest of the consumers, it would reject the merge and then ATT would not be able to make a transfer the T-Mobile license and use of that spectrum and ATT would appeal any decision by FCC. The U.S. government does not have the power to approve or disapprove of a merger. Companies are free to merge if they like, but for mergers and acquisitions of a certain size, they are required to notify the government of the transaction. This requirement was established under the Hart-Scott- Rodino Act, which mandates that companies involved in the merger should provide the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice with information about the merger before it occurs (Tim, 2002). If the merger occurs without divestitures, T-Mobile and ATT are going to do away with some cell sites. The eliminating of these types of expensive redundancies was a large part of the merger with ATT. SprintÃ¢â¬â¢s and Cellular SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s complaints provide realistic support for the allegation that ATT already has a significant market power as a purchaser of mobile wireless devices, and that the acquisition of T-Mobile would threaten them with harm. Sprint alleges that the proposed transaction would add T-MobileÃ¢â¬â¢s 34 million customers to ATTÃ¢â¬â¢s 95 million customers, leaving the merged entity with 129 million customers that is an increase (David and James, 2006). Sprint alleges that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has found that while larger carriers can negotiate handset exclusivity agreements, smaller carriers such as Sprint cannot. Sprint cites AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPhone as an example. ATT was the exclusive provider of the iconic iPhone from 2007 until early 2011, when Apple gave Verizon a time to-market advantage most likely because Verizon had the largest subscriber base in the United States. The merger will provide T-Mobile management workers a voice in the work place It will be neutral and allows workers to make their own decisions about whether or not to join a union. T-Mobile will actively intervene in this process through such practices as requiring workers to attend anti-union meetings, pressuring workers to report on any union contacts, and taking photos of workers accepting union literature. After the merger, T-MobileÃ¢â¬â¢s workers will be able to make their own decision without fear or management interference (David and James, 2006). Phases of a Negotiation Process According to Juan (2001), there are four phases of nega tion process namely; pre-negotiation, Conceptualization, Settling the Details and Follow-up and these will be discussed. Pre-Negotiation This is the phase whereby the partners determine whether there is a good reason to conduct the negotiation. The parties come up with the specifics that they want to negotiate about, and then establish an agenda before they commence the talks. It is in this phase that the identification of the people who will take part in the talks is done considering their authority and responsibility in the talk. It is essential to collect the information of the interested parties, their companies, and the individual interests. This is a critical process as it aids in the formulation of the goals and objectives that are to be achieved. It is also in this phase where time, location and date for the process of negotiation are determined. This can be done though faxes, phone calls and e-mails. The two parties have already passed this phase. Conceptualization This is the second phase of the negotiation process. Here, the basis of the negotiation is created with the use of the issues at hand. Discussions are held to have a common understanding of the basic concepts of agreement sought. Definition of goals and objectives of the parties is done though establishment of compatibility. Both parties have to be satisfied with the agreement reached and if not terms of partnership have to be reframed until they are in agreement. In the case of ATT and T-Mobile case, the two carriers have already reached a consensus for the agreement and the problem is not the government that has filled a case to block the merger. Settling the Details This is the final stage of the agreement. External specialists are involved to complete the details of the business enterprise and risks that are to be taken. The possible problems that may occur are discussed and possible solutions are formulated. Details relating to production, task responsibility, management and authority are discussed. The last part of the agreement is left for the legal experts. These individuals critically scrutinize the document and come up with final draft that clearly states the rules, regulations and obligations of each party to the contract that legally binds them. In the case of ATT and T-Mobile, they are in the phase of settling details where the government is giving the possible risks of the merge, the problems and how it will affect the state negatively. The government is claiming that, services will be poor after the merge. Follow-up The two parties have not reached this phase that is the final phase in negotiation process. There will be no follow-ups because the negotiations and contract between the two parties has not been resolved. Government officials were involved in the process and there are those who supported and those who opposed the merger idea. The attorneys general of Arkansas, Utah, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Michigan, Mississippi, North Dakota, South Dakot a, West Virginia, and Wyoming wrote a joint letter of support to the FCC on July 27. In addition, on September 16, the attorneys general of California, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Washington sent their letter opposing the merger. Months earlier, New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman made an announcement that his office was to take a thorough review of TTs acquisition of T-Mobile and come up with an analysis of the effects anticompetitive effects of merger on businesses and consumers (German, 2010). Steps in Negotiation Process The negotiation process has to involve many steps for them to come up with a partnership. According to Calum (2010), there are five styles of negotiation namely, compete, accommodate, avoid, compromise and collaborate. These styles will be discussed to see the styles that are applicable for the ATT and T-Mobile case. Compete (I win You lose) This is where the negotiators follow their own needs even if it means the others s uffer. The negotiators are focused on their shorter terms gains, they use powers, personality, market share, economic threats, brand strength. In the case of ATT and T-Mobile, the parties can negotiate with the government with the argument that ATT is facing economic problems and cannot meet the market demand. The parties can use this style of negotiation because they need immediate compliance Calum (2010). Accommodate (I Lose You Win) This is the style whereby relationship is everything. The negotiation aims at giving people what they want. In the case of T-Mobile and ATT versus the United States Government, they would conduct a negotiation process that will benefit the citizens because most of the citizens are for the idea of the merge so that there can be improved services. So in this case the government will lose and the mobile carriers (ATT and T-Mobile) will win the case and embark to merge their services (Calum, 2010). Avoid (I Lose You Lose) This is also referred to as pas sive aggressive negotiation whereby the parties do not want conflict. This can be used when the value of investing time to get a negotiation outweighs the benefit or when the case is trivial to both parties. Because the two parties do not want to lose, then they should not apply this style in their negotiation process. If this style is used it will lead to a loss because ATT owes T-Mobile a check for $3 billion and reduced charges for dialing into ATTs network as part of a package thatÃ¢â¬â¢s worth somewhere around $7 billion (Calum, 2010). Compromise (I Lose / Win Some You Lose / Win Some) This style involves splitting the difference that results to half way to both parties. This is where both parties win and lose. In the case of ATT and T-Mobile if this style is used it will not have good results because the resources will not be merged fully (Calum, 2010). The US government should look at a situation whereby each party will win and lose a situation so that the best services ca n be provided to the citizens. Collaborate (I Win You Win) It is also called win-win style whereby negotiation make sure that both parties have their needs met. The two mobile carriers can use this style to come up with a situation where neither of the party will lose. They can negotiate and make some adjustments and the partnership can make a contract to provide high quality services after the merger. In this case, it means that the government will win for the services and the mobile carriers will win to merge. This should be a negotiation in which both parties feel positive about the situation when the negotiation is concluded. This helps to maintain a positive working relationship afterwards. If the styles are used appropriately, the negotiation process will be successful Conclusion Every negotiation starts with a process followed by a strategy because without either, then it would be just a disagreement with any kind of resolution to the issue. Making sure that you get what you set out for is important but does not necessarily mean that the other person has to lose in the negotiation so making sure to go through the process and then coming up with a strategy ensures that all parties come out with a win-win rather than a win-lose negotiation. Quality of Service for ATT Will Improve because of a reduction in the number of dropped calls, less network congestion and an increased speed of connections due to added spectrum from T-Mobile, increased cell tower density and broader network infrastructure. In the long term, a post-merger ATT will be better able to retain and increase jobs because it will be in a more significant position to expand and extend its business than either ATT or T-Mobile could as separate carriers. References Andrade, J. (2011) ATT/T-Mobile Combination Is A Good Deal for America And For Latinos. Fiercereason. Web. Calum, C. (2010) Negotiation Conflict Styles. Web. David, L. James, S. (2006) 3D Negotiation. Harvard: Harvard Business Schoo l Press. German, K. (2010) States weigh in on ATT-T-Mobile merger. CNET. Web. Kent. G. (2011) On Call: Civil rights groups line up behind ATT-T-Mobile merger. CNET. Web. Leo W. (2011) ATT/T-Mobile Merger: Lets Call It What It Is, Part II. Web. Sparks, B. (2003) The Dynamics of Effective Negotiation (second edition). Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Co. Tim C. (2002) Regulators may approve ATT merger with T-Mobile after all. Web. Tom, M., Sara, S. Jeff, K. (2011) T-Mobile Antitrust Challenge Leaves ATT With Little Recourse on Takeover. Web. Weaver, P. (2011) Deutsche Telekom keeps it US Options Open. Telecoms.com. Web.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Education News Harvard Accused of Bias Against Asian Americans Education News: Harvard Accused of Bias Against Asian Americans Problems with discrimination and racism have always plagued social and cultural groups. Consequently, these issues have drawn continuous social and political debate. In the historical fight for equal rights and fair treatment for every one, courageous people resist any kind of social, gender or religion discrimination. A recent case connected with Harvard University alleges that the school maintained discriminatory policies toward Asian-Americans. This story has become a global scandal. The chancellor and the administration of the university were criticized for holding Asian Americans to a much higher set of entrance requirements than other candidates. It was stated that the university used fixed-quotas which were aimed to make the number of Asian-American candidates lower than other applicants. Such a bias may lead to the supposition that the educational potential of Asian-Americans is lower when compared to white students. However, the figures state just the opposite. Its been estimated that the results for Asian-Americans in general are about four hundred and fifty points higher in comparison with students of Afro-American origin, up to two hundred and seventy points higher than the result of Spanish students, and one hundred and forty points higher than white students (Belkin, 2015). So the educational potential of Asian-Americans exceeds the possible stereotype of their poor educational skills and academic incompetence. Sixty-four organizations filed a complaint accusing Harvard University of discrimination against Asian-Americans. The complaint alleges that Ã¢â¬Å"Many studies have indicated that Harvard University has been engaged in systemic and continuous discrimination against Asian-Americans during its very subjective Ã¢â¬ËHolisticÃ¢â¬â¢ college admissions processÃ¢â¬ (Belkin, 2015). This anti-racism campaign aims to carry out an investigation at the federal level. It also demands that HarvardÃ¢â¬Å"immediately cease and desist from using stereotypes, racial biases and other discriminatory means in evaluating Asian-American applicantsÃ¢â¬ (Belkin, 2015). Harvards general counsel, Robert Iuliano, insisted that the procedure for accepting the students into the university is in accordance with the law. The educational establishment firmly states that apart from paying close attention to entry exams results, only personal qualities such as leadership skills and extracurricular activities participation are taken into account. Mr Iuloano specially underlined that, in terms of creating a multinational environment in class, a large number of lecturers and students should be admitted to the university. He highlighted that the number of minority applicants rose from 18% during the last ten years up to 21% nowadays. Still the difference doesnt seem that much significant. The group of the initiators stand firmly for the idea, that the percent of the Afro-American students should be much higher (Belkin, 2015). Many studies blame Harvard for using a highly subjective selection policy. Its obvious that the legal complaint against the university is a result of long-standing offenses against the Asian-American community and the mistreatment of Asian-American students. In any case, holding unfair and biased attitudes can never be viewed as a constructive policy. Even the slightest expression of anger and aggression toward people from minority groups is highly likely to cause alienation, and even lead to serious racial conflicts. One possible way out of the current unfavorable situation may lie in taking practical steps to reject all the national stereotypes regarding different racial groups. For only through decreasing social and racial tension can the aim of maintaining favourable balance between students of various races can be reached.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Analysis of Strategic Factors for Microsoft Corporation - Research Paper Example Political/legal forces: Microsoft Corporation runs the risk that its business may be affected by changes in the political landscape of the U.K. However, the political climate of the UK is quite business friendly and this is really not a problem. Moreover, new legislation on tax may come into force. This may have a direct impact on Microsoft Corporation. Value added tax recently witnessed a decline. This is good news for Microsoft Corporation as it means that more customers can now shop for Software given that they will be paying less tax on consumption. Moreover, there has been a renewed increase in environmental protection. This may lead to new environmental legislation that may have a direct or indirect material adverse impact on the operations of Microsoft Corporation. Economic Forces: The main economic forces that may affect Microsoft Corporation include fluctuations in interest rates, which has been the case in the UK recently. Interest rates have fallen significantly recently inducing consumers to spend more. Higher inflation means that the cost of inputs will be rising. Exchange rate fluctuations indicate that cash flows denominated in foreign currency are unstable. Prices of inputs sourced from abroad will be unstable as well. The Great British Pound has depreciated significantly against major currencies such as the euro and the dollar. On the one hand, this is good news for Microsoft Corporation given that tourists from abroad can spend more on Software in the UK. On the contrary, it is bad news to Microsoft Corporation in that the prices of foreign inputs in terms of Great British Pounds will be higher. Fluctuations in GDP have an impact on consumer spending. Increasing GDP indicates that consumers can spend more while decreasing GDP indicat es that aggregate demand will drop which will reduce consumption of Software. The global recession has also affected a number of industries and Microsoft Corporation may have witnessed a decline in the demand for its products as well as a decline in funding for its projects.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
The Great Migration and The Harlem Renaissance - Research Paper Example The Southern agricultural economy meant that African American farmers had to borrow from wealthy white men in order to sow and harvest. The accruing interest made it impossible for the black man to fully enjoy the toils of his hard work. Other African Americans who worked as farmhands were paid just enough to afford them through every day without a sustainable future. The rural South offered little other choices for the African Americans who were poorly educated, socially ostracized and stuck in a vicious cycle of poverty. Education remained a distant dream for the African Americans in the South given the cost of education. The only real choice left for millions of African Americans in the South was to emigrate to the North. The North offered better employment opportunities in factories and services based businesses. In addition, the African Americans in the North were offered better opportunities for education and, hence, a means of social mobility. Greater social respect also playe d its part in convincing millions of African Americans to emigrate to the North. The First World War also played an important role in forcing millions of African Americans to the doors of factories. The onset of the war had meant that labor was in short supply in the Northern urban centers. In order to replenish labor supplies, African Americans from the South moved to industrial centers such as Detroit where they were in large demand. The oppressive Jim Crow regime in the South along with the Ku Klax KlanÃ¢â¬â¢s exploits also forced a large number of African Americans to find better social living conditions. The wave of emigration from the rural South to the urban North began in the early twentieth century and persisted well into the third quarter of the twentieth century. The migration of African Americans by the millions into the cities is better known as the Great Migration. The first wave of the Great Migration forced some 1.6 million African Americans to move from the rural South to the more urbanized areas. This wave can be traced from the 1910s to the 1930s where the African Americans moved to the urban centers in the North and the mid-West (Arnesen 15). As a consequence of the Great Migration, the outlook of major urban centers in the United States began to change. The influx of new industrial workers in industrial urban centers meant that the composition of industrial workers began to change. Housing became a large problem since the new workers did not have a purpose to built housing facilities. The new emigrants were confined to their own territories such as the Bronx in New York. The social exclusivity of the neighborhoods in these urban centers provided rich grounds for a new cultural transformation. This move was catalyzed by the onset of education in these new neighborhoods. The new wave of immigrants provided the human resources as well as the audience required for a new cultural infusion (Andrews, Foster and Harris 103).Ã
Saturday, November 16, 2019
About being a Police Officer Essay If you are interested in becoming a police officer, you must be aware of how tough it is to get the job. You have to go through hard mental and physical screening and training, and for good reason. Police work is a noble career, but it can also be a difficult life. I choose this topic because I know much about it already but I want to learn more because I might end up being in Law Enforcement. Being a Police Officer is not as hard as it looks you having to be fit. To become a police officer, you must pass a fitness test, and you will be required to accomplish various fitness challenges at the police academy. Its not all action all the time. You will need to write reports of what happened, and those reports must be accurate and detailed because they can be used as evidence in court. See more: Old Age Problem essay Crime wont stop when youre off duty. You may be called upon to assist with a situation at any time. However, these extra hours often come with overtime pay. The communitys safety is in your hands, and your work will not always be respected. You have to be able to tolerate people not trusting you because of the actions of other police officers, and you may find yourself rebuilding trust on a regular basis. Not only will you work on a daily basis with your partner, but you must also represent the police to the community. Your every action will be under scrutiny, either by your supervisor, your peers or the public at large. This is what I know before I start learning more about being a Police Officer.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Compare my last duchess and Porhyria's lover considering in particular how the 2 central characters are presented. Both poems, "My Last Duchess" and "Porphyria's Lover" have similarities and differences. This can be seen in the two central characters, content and language. In "My Last Duchess" the duke, a rich upper class man, is talking to a messenger of a count whose daughter he wishes to marry. This poem begins in front of his last Duchess painting which is on the wall in the Duke's home. Throughout the poem, we discover the characteristics of the Duke and learn about the murder of the Duchess. "Porphyria's Lover" however begins in the lover's cottage. The poem describes a night they spent together and the murder of Porphyria. Throughout this poem, we also learn about the characteristics of the Lover. Both poems are linked through the murder of Porphyria and the Duchess. Firstly, in "My Last Duchess", the Duke is controlling. This can be seen in "The curtain I have drawn for you, but I". This tells us that the duke was in control over who saw the painting because there was a curtain present over the painting. This can also suggest that the Duke, still, thought that he had control over his late wife. This also shows the Duke being selfish and powerful. The Duke's selfishness can also be seen later in the poem. This can be seen in "A heart, how shall I say? - too soon made glad, /Too easily impressed" and "She looked on and her looks went everywhere." It would appear that the Duke was not impressed by the supposed flirtatious actions of the Duchess. This is because he wanted the Duchess to be completely his. Therefore we can see that the Duke was also a jealous man. Another characteristic of the... ...hat Porphyria, now completely belongs to the Lover. The language used here can help us establish something about the metal state of the lover. We can see that, unlike the Duke, he has psychiatric problems. His looking up to God could suggest he was trying to justify his actions by gaining God's support or he felt no guilt over what he had done. In conclusion, both poems are dramatic monologues. This is when one speaker relates the entire poem as if it was another speaker presenting the speaker. They both carry a question of ambiguity. For example we are not certain whether the Duchess was flirtatious or whether Porphyria was proud. We are not told what exactly happens in both poems. Therefore, it is up to us to intrrreperate what is happening in the two poems. Finally, any information which we are given comes from the narrator and this may not reliable.
Monday, November 11, 2019
In 1889 Chicago had the peculiar qualifications of growth which made such adventuresome pilgrimages even on the part of young girls plausible. Its many and growing commercial opportunities gave it widespread fame, which made of it a giant magnet, drawing to itself, from all quarters, the hopeful and the hopeless Ã¢â¬â those who had their fortune yet to make and those whose fortunes and affairs had reached a disastrous climax elsewhere. (Dreiser 15f) At the turn of the 19th century, the industrialisation brought about tremendous change in the US. With innovations and inventions like the steam engine, railroads, electricity, telephones and telegraphing, the structure of American society shifted and evolved. People from the rural areas started flocking to the big cities in hopes of finding work and a better life, a dream many chased in vain. The protagonist in Theodore DreiserÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Sister Carrie, 18-year old country girl Carrie Meeber, is one of the Ã¢â¬Å"hopefulÃ¢â¬ ; she leaves her hometown to find happiness and success in the big city of Chicago. At first, she stays with relatives and experiences the miserable, tiresome day-to-day struggle of the working middle-class of job-hunting and then hard menial labour in a factory. However, she soon grows tired of her situation. She lets herself be mesmerised by the wealth displayed by others, which both intimidates her and fills her with an insatiable longing for money and status. With this desire growing in her heart, she is willing to make all the sacrifices to achieve her goal, leaving her safe, but unexciting home to live with Charles Drouet, a man whom she barely knows, but who offers her a comfortable lifestyle. Nevertheless, Carrie still is not satisfied, so she leaves him for the wealthier George Hurstwood and continues to search for a way to success and happiness by obtaining status and commodities, losing herself in the process. In his novel Sister Carrie, Theodore Dreiser illustrates how the industrialisation did not only change the structure of American society at the turn of the 19th century, but also have a deep impact on the consumer culture and individual consumer behaviour of the American middle-class, marking the beginning of the impossible quest of struggling to create oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity through consumption. The Industrialisation The inventions and innovations of the industrialisation brought about great change for American society and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives. Roughly before 1750, even though the Americans with their steadily advancing frontier were a very progress-oriented people, the general expectation was to die in a world not much different to the one one was born in. (Cross 53) However, during and after the industrialisation, the increased development of ground-breaking new technology did not only affect the economy, but also the way people viewed the world. The inventions of the steam engine and electricity, the new ways of travelling and communication over long distances and new forms of retail created new employment and consumption possibilities (Cross 53), allowing a more and more comfortable and luxurious lifestyle in the cities for the upper-class and those middle-class citizens who were able to afford to keep up with the latest trends and fashions. The steam engine is said to be the central invention of the industrialisation period from the 18th to the 20th century, as it inspired as many technological advances as no other invention before it. Invented in Britain at the beginning of the 18th century, Gary Cross explains it took quite some time until was imported, adapted and improved by the Americans to fit their needs. In the 18th century, he reasons, there was no need for an alternative source of energy, as vast forests, coal deposits and water energy were available. In the 19th century, however, this indifferent attitude towards the steam engine changed fundamentally and its potential as an energy source for manufacturing was exploited. Cross 84) By 1830, only about five per cent of the American factories used steam power; by 1900, it was over 80 per cent. (Cross 93) Steam also found its uses in the non-industrial sector as central heating for buildings. In Sister Carrie, Carrie delights in her modern New York apartment Ã¢â¬Å"supplied with steam-heatÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"bath with hot and cold waterÃ¢â¬ (307). In addition to that, the steam engine was applied in the area of transportation as energy source for street cars, steam boats, and locomotives. The railroad had a tremendous effect on both the American economy and society in the 19th century. Daniel W. Howe mentions three main consequences of the railroad (among many others): Firstly, it sped up the process of urbanisation by connecting rural areas to the big cities. (Howe 565) For example, Chicago, one of the main settings of Sister Carrie, evolved from a village of less than 100 inhabitants in 1830 to a city of 30,000 in 1850, which would have been absolutely Ã¢â¬Å"inconceivable [Ã¢â¬ ¦] without the railroad. (Howe 567) In 1889, the time the story of the novel sets in, its population is greater than 50,000 (16). Secondly, allowing the efficient transport of commodities across the country by shortening waiting times and cutting costs, the railroad not only led to a tremendous change in trading business, but also provided the incentive for technological advancement in steel production as well as in the efficiency and safety of trains and tracks, laying the groundwork for f urther innovation of methods of transport later in history. Howe 566) Finally, as a comparatively convenient and affordable way of travelling, railroads also provided the opportunity for long-distance trips and vacations in far-away places even for the American middle-class. (Howe 565) There are two reasons for taking the train in Sister Carrie: for business purposes, and with the intent of moving to another city. Interestingly, there are no actual vacations taking place in the novel; merely plans of travel are mentioned, mostly overseas trips to Europe (142;357). Of far more interest are Drouet and his ambivalent feelings about business travel. He undoubtedly enjoys meeting and flirting with the ladies he meets on the road. He has no reservations of striking up a chat with Carrie on her first train journey from her hometown to Chicago, who (unsurprisingly) is very impressed by Drouet and his knowledge of the various places he has visited on business. (4ff) Drouet is a Ã¢â¬Å"drummerÃ¢â¬ , a travelling salesman, a job requiring the railway for fast long-distance travel. For him, train journeys hold no deep meaning; they are simply a necessary part of his work. In a short flirtation with a chambermaid, he reveals that he travels far, but does not care for travelling all that much, explaining, Ã¢â¬Å"You get tired of it after awhile. Ã¢â¬ (200) The same trip, merely a boring return of a business trip for Drouet, is a life-altering, exciting journey for Carrie. Never having travelled before, she is reassured by the thought that home will never be far away since the cities were Ã¢â¬Å"bound more closely by these very trains which came up dailyÃ¢â¬ (3). The railroad shortened travel times drastically. While it took five weeks to travel from Chicago over the Appalachians to New York in 1790, seventy years later the distance could be crossed in merely two days. (Cross 104) Originally, Carrie moves from the countryside to the city because she is in need of work; however, her expectations for her future are far more ambitious. Her hopes of fortune and fame she projects on Ã¢â¬Å"[t]his onrushing trainÃ¢â¬ , which Ã¢â¬Å"was merely speeding to get there. Ã¢â¬ (3) The second and by far most dramatic journey in Sister Carrie, however, is the elopement of Carrie and Hurstwood. Having stolen a large sum of money from his employers, he tricks Carrie into leaving Chicago with him on a train bound for Detroit, from where they continue to Montreal, Canada. Again, all hope is set on the train as the (only) way to a better future. In this case it is Hurstwood, who in his desperation loses all eloquence, who considers the only possible future as Ã¢â¬Å"a thing which concern[s] the Canadian line. Ã¢â¬ (275) Making the train his lifeline, he hopes to cross the border as soon as possible, since abroad he will be safe from the legal repercussions of his crime. Hurstwood manages to persuade Carrie to stay with him, but since life in Montreal does not seem worthwhile to either of them, they soon decide to move on to New York, again with the hope of a promising future awaiting them once they get off the train. The invention of the telegraph revolutionised long-distance communication thoroughly, possibly even more so than the railroad did long-distance transportation. Professor Samuel Finley Breese Morse and his team were the first to develop a commercially viable kind of electric telegraph in America; by 1848, the system of wires reached Chicago. Howe 695) Research and experiments led to Thomas Edison finding a way of sending messages back and forth over one wire at the same time in the 1870s and to his invention of the phonograph, with which messages could be recorded. (Cross 176) Unlike the telephone, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 and was mainly used for social purposes (Cross 181), the telegraph was mostly used for commercial purposes and information transmission. It also found its use in communication on the railroad, improving the safety and efficiency of trains. Cross 102) In Sister Carrie, the telegraph and even the telephone have short appearances at crucial points in the story, both concerning HurstwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s crime and dramatic escape. Coming across a Ã¢â¬Å"famous drug storeÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"one of the first private telephone booths ever erectedÃ¢â¬ (271), Hurstwood phones the train station to obtain information regarding the train times, as he wishes to leave as soon as possible. Opposed to the novelty of the telephone so explicitly stressed by Dreiser, the already well-established telegraph is casually integrated in the story. On the train bound for Detroit, Hurstwood worries that the afternoon papers might already cover his theft and wonders Ã¢â¬Å"what telegraphs might comeÃ¢â¬ (282), indicating his fear of not being able to escape fast enough. The telegraph was a useful tool for the police to coordinate searches and catching criminals before they were beyond reach, apparently leading to a few successful arrests. (288) Once in Canada, Hurstwood anxiously checks the newspaper, and, Ã¢â¬Å"among the riff-raff of the telegraphed murders, accidents, marriages and other news items from out the length and breadth of the landÃ¢â¬ (297), he discovers a small notice of his own crime. Because he cannot see himself staying abroad, he tries to negotiate with his former employers the return of the money and a possible rehiring, the latter of which obviously eliciting a much colder response than the firstÃ¢â¬âalso via telegraph. (302) Electricity was one huge step towards a modern economy and society. At first mainly used to replace gas lighting, its uses expanded rapidly with every new innovation and improvement of existing technology; as mentioned, the telegraph and telephone depended on electric energy, and the electronic signal for the railway introduced in 1872 greatly improved the safety of trains. Cross 102) However, in the first years, electricity was mainly used to making America a brighter placeÃ¢â¬âin the literal sense. (Cross 157) Brighter and cleaner than gas lighting, the electric light bulb invented by Thomas Edison in 1879 gradually took over homes, offices, and city streets. (Cross 158) In the late 1880s, steam-powered street cars in many cities were replaced by electric ones, as they were a faster alternative to get the workers from their homes to their work places and back. They were also less expensive, and the inevitable pollution was concentrated in the area the energy was generated and not spread throughout the city; electric streetcars did, however, increase noise pollution. (Cross 159; 168) Light is the element creating the most obvious distinction between places of luxury and places of suffering in Sister Carrie: The former are all bathed in light, while the latter are cast in shadow or are dimly lit at best. For example, the shoe factory Carrie works in in the beginning is xtremely poorly lit (36f), while the department stores as temples of consumption and the streets as their runways are practically aglow (30). As their financial situation in New York becomes irreversibly dire, Hurstwood one day finds Carrie Ã¢â¬Å"reading, quite alone. It was rather dark in the flat, shut in as it was. Ã¢â¬ (358) Bright lights, on the other hand, are abundant in places Carrie enjoys being; she quite literally experiences the Ã¢â¬Å"bright side of lifeÃ¢â¬ when she dines out with friends at SherryÃ¢â¬â¢s, a very popular and expensive restaurant the high society of New York likes to dine at. She marvels at the splendid dining chamber, all decorated and aglow, where the wealthy ate, [with its] incandescent lights, the reflection of their glow in polished glasses, and the shine of gilt upon the walls [Ã¢â¬ ¦]. On the ceilings were colored traceries with more gilt, leading to a centre where spread a broad circle of lightÃ¢â¬âincandescent globes mingled with glittering prisms and stucco tendrils of gilt.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Almost lost a finger When I was about 12 years old I loved to ride my Hard BMW bike around my neighborhood a lot with my friend nick. Nick and I used to fix our own bikes and learn how to do it all ourselves. We would work on our bikes all day every day and take them apart and put them back together, we got so good at riding and fixing our bikes we fixed are bikes anywhere at any time or at least I thought so. One day during the summer of freshman year nick and I went for a ride to the park down the street from y house to play soccer.After we played soccer at the park for a while we decided to go to nicks house to play video games and get something to drink. So as were riding back to nicks house my chin felt a little loose so I thought it was a good idea to try and fix it while I was riding. I put my in on my chain while riding the bike and my hand got stuck in the chain and I couldn't get it out and the only way to get my finger out was to peddle and get it out of the chain but once I peddled I felt this very sharp pain in my finger but didn't look till I got to my friend's house.Once I had finally looked at it, it took me a second to really realize my finger was Just barely hanging on by a small piece of skin. Nicks mom then did all she could and called my mom and said Ã¢â¬Å"you need to take Andrew to the emergency roomÃ¢â¬ . My mom rushed over to nicks house and we went to the emergency room. After the x rays were taken of my finger they were able to stitch It back together and make sure I could still have feeling in my finger and that the bone healed well. My finger By Vanessa they were able to stitch it back together and make sure I could still have feeling in my
Thursday, November 7, 2019
On The Beach essays In the big city of Melbourne, Australia, material goods have become scarce. There are no cars, and very little of the luxuries that there once were. It takes hours to get simple necessities such as milk. All this is because of the nuclear war in the Northern Hemisphere. This nuclear war has wiped out every living thing, including all humans, throughout countries like China, Europe, and even the United States. It all began with a fight between Russia and China, who wanted to destroy each others land. They managed this with nuclear bombs, and without realizing the consequences, killed off their own people along with everybody else due to the radiation that was left behind. The radiation has killed all forms of life in the Northern Hemisphere so far, and is now steadily approaching the Southern Hemisphere; the only place left on the planet with life. Lieutenant Commander Peter Holmes lives in Melbourne with his wife, Mary and their infant, Jennifer. They, along with everyone else in Australia, have heard and known that the radiation is slowly coming and scientist have predicted that they only have until September before it spreads throughout Australia, killing them all with a slow sickness. This sickness includes symptoms such as nausea, diarrhoea, and trembling. It could take anywhere from three days to three weeks to die, depending on ones resistance in their body. Peter is aware of the short time he has left to live out his life, yet his wife Mary fails to realize that there will be no next year, or next spring. She continues to plan ahead as if she will still be alive years or even months from then. Peter helps to comfort her by allowing her to think this way and buying her things such as flowers for the garden that will not bloom until the next year. Peter is called on assignment in the beginning of the book to go on a cruise aboard the U.S.S. Scorpion, the only submarine left. T...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
French Terms Related to Hanukkah and Judaism Hanukkah is a Jewish festival of survival and freedom that lasts for eight days. Learn some French vocabulary related to this annual Jewish celebration. Le Nom du Festival: The Name of the Festival Because Hanukkah is a Jewish holiday with a Hebrew name, it may be spelled several different ways: English spellings: Hanukkah, Hanukah, Hanukka, ChanukahÃ¯ » ¿French spellings: Hanoucca, Hannouccah, Hanouccah, Hanoukka Hanukkah is also known as the Festival of Lights (la FÃ ªte des LumiÃ ¨res) and the Feast of Dedication (la FÃ ªte des dÃ ©dicaces). Les Dates de Hanoucca: Hanukkah Dates Hanukkah begins on the 25th of Kislev, the ninth month in the Jewish calendar, and lasts for eight days. It occurs on a different date every year of the Gregorian (solar) calendar - sometime in November or December. La Nourriture de Hanoucca: Hanukkah Food Food is a big part of the Hanukkah celebration. Most of the traditional foods are fried in oil, in remembrance of the oil that lasted for eight days, while others are made with dairy products: cheeseÃ Ã Ã le fromagedoughnutÃ Ã Ã un beignetto fryÃ Ã Ã friremilkÃ Ã Ã le laitoilÃ Ã Ã huile (feminine)potato pancake (latke)Ã Ã Ã une galette aux pommes de terresour creamÃ Ã Ã la crÃ ¨me aigre Le Vocabulaire de Hanoucca ~ Hanukkah Vocabulary Here are the French translations for some terms related to Hanukkah, as well as Judaism in general: blessingÃ Ã Ã une bÃ ©nÃ ©dictioncandleÃ Ã Ã une bougieDecemberÃ Ã Ã dÃ ©cembredoorÃ Ã Ã une porteDreidel (spinning top)Ã Ã Ã la toupieeight daysÃ Ã Ã huit joursfamilyÃ Ã Ã la famillegameÃ Ã Ã un jeugiftÃ Ã Ã un cadeauJewishÃ Ã Ã juifkosherÃ Ã Ã casher, kashermenorahÃ Ã Ã la MÃ ©norahmiracleÃ Ã Ã un miracleNovemberÃ Ã Ã novembrepocket moneyÃ Ã Ã argent de pocheprayerÃ Ã Ã une priÃ ¨reSabbathÃ Ã Ã le sabbatsongÃ Ã Ã une chansonsunsetÃ Ã Ã le coucher de soleiltempleÃ Ã Ã le templevictoryÃ Ã Ã la victoirewindowÃ Ã Ã une fenÃ ªtre
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - Research Paper Example The challenge pushed the company, towards changing its market outlook, to adopt an approach where they targeted profitable customer segments (Mentzer, et al., 2001). The strategy has pushed the company to focus on the marketing and the sales of original equipment. Additionally, the company has had to adopt market-back innovation, which featured the rejuvenation of product lines like Wrangler and Eagle. There was also the challenge of improving its operational excellence across its supply chain Ã¢â¬â including the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s 52 operational facilities located at 22 countries (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, 2012). The goal of the company has been the reduction of inventory at the different facilities as well as affiliated facilities, while at the same time improving the efficiency of business (Lavassani, Movahedi & Kumar, 2009). The supply chain needs to evolve in a number of areas, so that it can support its business. These include focusing their sales and production capaci ty to the service of the highly profitable customer segments, including the original equipment line. Secondly, the company needs to carry out market-back innovation continually, which will increase its efficiency through re-energizing its brands. Thirdly, the company will need to push its facilities and those of its suppliers to increase their operational excellence, through changes like the reduction of inventory (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, 2012). A larger proportion of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success has come from its vertically integrated sales outlook and supply chain. For example, the company realized huge success through its vertical integration with Formula one and NASCAR. Their major success through the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vertical integration with these vehicle consumers and vehicle makers shows that the company should widen its vertical integration (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, 2012). The wider vertically integrated supply chain should cover other players like garage owners, car importers, car manufacturers, the suppliers of rubber materials and other commodity producers. 2. The competitive advantage of the company lies in the area of quality, primarily due to their reputation as the main suppliers of reputable racing companies like Formula one and NASCAR. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation for quality products can also be traced to the Goodyear blimp, after the first Goodyear blimp flew in 1925 (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, 2012). The core operational competencies of the company include that its tires have been associated with sporting cars and events, to the levels that they have gained reputation for their performance capabilities. The second operational competency is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business in 22 countries, where its brands are reputable (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, 2012). Thirdly, many of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s brands are globally reputable, which allows it to win against its competitors. The market risks facing the company inc lude that its market positioning has been tainted by its ranking, as the 19th-largest corporate contributor to air pollution in the US. This threat becomes worse, following the continued pressure of different corporate consumers to consume the products of green-operating companies (Simchi-Levi, Kaminsky & Simchi-levi, 2007). The second competitive threat facing the compan